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高中英语 | 掌握这些考点和技巧,拿下短文改错没问题!

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发表于 2017-10-11 14:11:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
做短文改错题的时候,你会发现短文中出现的词汇和语法都是最基础的,那为什么我们总找不出错误的地方呢?很大一部分原因是,我们对错项的设置规律不了解,不清楚出题者的出题角度。
下面从语法和逻辑的角度,用口诀的形式,向同学们介绍高考英语短文改错中最常见的几类错误。
动词形,名词数;
注意形和副;
非谓动词细辨别;
习惯用法要记住;
句子成分多分析;
逻辑错误须关注。
1
动词形
主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和语态错误,以及主、谓不一致的错误。例如:
  • My favourite sport is football. I wasa member of our school football team. (am)
  • Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library. (are)
    上述两例分别属于时态错误和主、谓不一致错误。找出此类错误的关键是树立牢固的时态概念,注意短文内容发生或存在的时间,保持时间概念的一致性。
    2
    名词数
    指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表现为将名词复数写成单数。例如:
  • …so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. (subjects)
    3
    区分形容词和副词
    区分形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用法。这也是高考短文改错的常考点。例如:
  • I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfullytime together. (wonderful)
  • Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family. (Unfortunately)
    需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。
    4
    非谓动词细辨别
    这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。例如:
  • …in my spare time, but now I am interestingin football. (interested)
  • Playfootball not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … (playing)
  • My parents love me… and will do all they can ∧ make sure… (to)
    上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语,和不定式作目的状语。一般的,现在分词有主动和进行的含义,而过去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义,不定式有将来的含义。
    5
    习惯用法要记住
    主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识。这也是历年高考的常考点,其错误表现形式主要有三种:多词、少词和搭配错误。例如:
  • It was very kind forthem to meet me at the railway station and… (of)
  • We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves. (of)
    6
    句子成分多分析
    不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如:
  • They ∧ eager to know everything about China and…(were)
  • I live in Beijing,whereis the capital of China. (which)
    第一例漏掉了谓语动词were,这是受汉语习惯的影响而导致的错误;第二例则是词类与它在句子中的成分不相符,where是副词,不能作主语。
    7
    逻辑错误须关注
    与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如:
  • The Smiths did hisbest to make me feel at home. (their)
  • First, let me tell you something moreabout myself. (去掉more)
  • … no way of setting the matter except by selling the set. Now someoneat home reads instead. (everyone)
    上述第一例中的主语是Smiths(史密斯夫妇俩),因此后面的his不合逻辑。
    第二例中的more在这儿表“再”的意思,才开始告诉别人,怎么能说“再告诉你一些事”?
    第三例讲的是为了解决看电视时的争端,“我们”把电视机卖了;晚上没电视看了,所以与从前一样,大家又都读书了,所以该用 everyone。
    除了上述错误类型外,常考的错误形式还有:连词but, and, or和so的用法错误(可以归类为逻辑错误),以及冠词的用法错误等。例如:
  • She was smiling butnodding at me. (and)
  • It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor anda guest. (or)
  • We may be one family and live under asame roof.(the)
    下面是全国高考英语真题中的短文改错题。这道题较全面地反映了本文的口诀。现在试着做一做,然后参阅题后的答案与解析。
    Last week my parents and I took a two-day trip to Emei Mountain in Sichuan. As everyone knows,it’s famous mountain with all kinds of plants and animals. The weather is fine. It was about noon we arrived at the foot of the mountain,the three of them were very excited. As weclimbed the mountain,we saw monkeys,visiting temples and told stories. On the way up I was busy taking picture since the scenery was so beautiful. The time passes quickly. Evening came down. We spent the night in a hotel at the top of the mountain. The food was expensive and the service was good. I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched the pillow.
    答案:Last week my parents and I took a two-day trip to Emei Mountain in Sichuan. As everyone knows,it’s ∧(a)famous mountain with all kinds of plants and animals. The weather is(was)fine. It was about noon ∧(when)we arrived at the foot of the mountain,the three ofthem(us)were very excited. As we climbed the mountain,we saw monkeys,visiting(visited) temples and told stories. On the way up I was busy takingpicture(pictures)since the scenery was so beautiful. The time passes(passed) quickly. Evening came down. We spent the night in a hotel at the top of the mountain. The food was expensive and(but) the service was good. I was so tired that I fell asleep atthe moment my head touched the pillow.
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